Use & Application
**Buffer layers and clad steels**: Overlays on CMn, mild steel or low alloy steels and for joining 304L/321 clad plate. Subsequent layers are deposited with an electrode chosen to match the cladding, e.g. 308L, 347. **Dissimilar joints**: Tolerance to dilution is exploited in joining stainless types 410, 304L, 321 and 316L to mild and low alloy steels such as stiffeners, brackets and other attachments. Service temperatures above 400°C are normally avoided. It is also used for welding 12%Cr ‘utility ferritics’ such as Cromwell 3CR12, to itself and other steels. **Similar metal joints**: Wrought and cast steels of 23Cr- 12Ni type (e.g. ASTM 309 and CH8, BS 309S24 and 309C30) can be welded if the service requirement is corrosion resistance below 400°C. However, for high temperature structural service, weld metal with controlled higher carbon and lower ferrite should be used. Preheat and interpass temperatures depend on base material hardenability. For guidance, no preheat on mild steels; up to 250°C on hardenable steels
Alloy type
24%Cr-13%Ni (309L) austenitic stainless for dissimilar joint buffer layers etc.
Microstructure
Austenite with ferrite in the range 8-20FN. GMAW tends to have lower ferrite (8-15 FN) than the MMA and FCW consumables.
Materials to be welded

Mainly used under high dilution conditions, particularly dissimilar welds between stainless and CMn steels.

Products of the line 309L

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